Fiber optic networks are replacing copper wire networks quickly in the world of telecommunications. A very thin piece of pure glass called an optical fiber serves as a long-distance waveguide for light. It operates on the idea of thorough interior reflection. The real glass layers that makeup fiber optic cable are the cladding, which surrounds the core, and the core, which carries the actual light transmission. The refractive index of the cladding is lower than that of the core. The core experiences Total Internal Reflection as a result. The majority of fibers work in duplex pairs, where one fiber is used for transmission and the other for reception. Nevertheless, it is feasible to transmit both signals via a single thread. Fiber optic cables come in two primary varieties: Single Mode Fiber (SMF) and Multi-Mode Fiber (MMF). The size of the core is really what makes a difference. The broader core of MMF enables the propagation of several modes (or “rays”) of light. SMF only permits one mode of light to propagate because of its extremely tiny core. Each type of fiber has unique characteristics as well as benefits and drawbacks.
Why use optic fiber cable?
- They have access to virtually endless knowledge.
- They can carry a lot of data and have a very wide bandwidth (THz or Tbits/s).
- They have extremely low transmission losses (0.22 dB/km for microwave, 0.01 dB/km for twisted copper pair).
- They don’t expel heat.
- They are resistant to electromagnetic interference and crosstalk.
In a wide range of circumstances, sectors, and applications, fiber optic cables are used extensively. Look at a few of these applications:
Optical fibers are appropriate for use in medicine. They can be created in thin, flexible strands that are flexible enough to be inserted into hollow bodily organs like the lungs and blood arteries. Numerous instruments that enable doctors to view inside body parts without requiring surgery make use of these optical fibers.
To receive and transfer data, optical fiber is deployed and used. Fiber optic cables are used for telephone transmission. Light pulses are transmitted through these fibers as energy. The only difference between its technology and that of coaxial lines is that optical fibers can accommodate thousands of simultaneous chats.
In a number of network configurations, servers and users are connected via optical fibers, which also improve data transmission’s accuracy and speed.
Fibers are utilized for imaging in hard-to-reach places, such as in temperature sensors, EMI-sensitive wiring, pressure sensors, industrial wire, and car wiring. Fiber optic cables are used by broadcast/CATV cable companies to wire HDTV, CATV, video-on-demand, the internet, and many more applications.
Fiber cables are utilized for both data transmission and storage. Fiber optic cables are also employed as sensors to track and quantify a wide range of factors, for imaging and lighting, and for other purposes. Additionally, fiber cables are employed in testing, development, and research for all of the aforementioned applications.